Those types that cannot withstand overcharging may have in-built voltage and temperature sensing circuits to cut off when fully charged. Over the decades, smart phones and other devices have become technologically advanced with each passing year but power limitations are severely restrictive.
The battery hasn’t witnessed the kind of advance that other devices have. But all that may be changing now. It is only now that big technology companies such as those making electric vehicles are becoming aware of the limitations of lithium-ion batteries.